Besides the importance of consolidating social development in the regions of Araçuaí and Divisa Alegre, the independence of Brazil relating to the lithium supply chain is essential to the Brazilian strategy for Energy.
Nuclear Energy by Fission and by Fusion
Lithium is imperative for nuclear fission reactors and for nuclear fusion reactors.
At fission reactors, isotope Li7+ is the coolant to control reactors temperature.
Regarding to nuclear fusion, it will eventually be a clean, abundant and ultimate source for the whole planet.
Studies being done in France in a joint-venture with EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea and Russia aim to build the first ITER thermonuclear reactor for nuclear fusion.
Nuclear plants by fission struggle against negative movements regarding to their sustainability, but still constitute strategic energy sources for many countries, including Brazil.
Nuclear fusion, expected to have commercial reality within few decades, brings unquestionable advantages comparing to nuclear fission relating to safety and radiation emission.
Controlling lithium resources and dominating the technology to produce the lithium isotopes is essential to the energetic strategy of countries that can benefit from these energy sources.
Vehicle Electrification and Storage of Renewable Energy
As already occurring in many countries, Brazil will eventually advance in the use of hybrid electric vehicles to complement the substitution of fossil fuels by ethanol vehicles.
The substitution of fossil fuels is proprietary to reduce carbon gases, to improve the energetic efficiency and to reduce noise pollution. Not only light vehicles can be electric, but also heavy-duty vehicles for cargo and passengers
Almost all electric vehicles use nowadays ion-lithium batteries. In Brazil, the best solution could be hybrid ethanol/electric.
Renewable and clean sources of electric energy such as wind power and photovoltaic are already unreplaceable to many countries including Brazil. However, their generation is intermittent, reducing their potential use and affecting their integration to the grid.
Big energy storage systems using ion-lithium batteries are able to homogenize energy supply from wind power and photovoltaic plants, increasing their potential use and facilitating their integration to the national grid.